Skin absorption of pesticide formulations containing chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D, and glyphosate negatively affects the common toad

Photo credit: Frank Vassen Photo credit: Frank Vassen

A recent study published in the journal Water, Air, and Soil Pollution has found that dermal exposure to low levels of the common pesticides chlorpyrifos, 2,4-D, and glyphosate resulted in neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunological depression in the common toad. Researchers investigated the effects of low-level exposure on toads by exposing their skin to solutions containing low levels of each pesticide. Blood samples were taken from the experimental toads after 48 hours and a number of bio-indicators indicating stress, inflammation, and immune response were quantified. The results demonstrate that dermal exposure to all three pesticide formulations had negative health impacts on the toads.